Important Reasons for Cutting Edge Wear

In order to understand the advantages and limitations of each material, it is very important to have a certain knowledge of the different wear conditions that may occur for each cutting tool.

Flank wear-Abrasive wear

The most common wear type and the primary wear type of cutting tools, because it can ensure a predictable and stable tool life. Flank wear mainly occurs due to the wear caused by the hard components in the workpiece material.

Crescent crater wear-Chemical wear

The crater wear of the cutting tool is located on the rake face of the blade. The reason is that a chemical reaction occurs between the workpiece material and the cutting tool and is amplified by the cutting speed. Excessive crater wear will reduce the strength of the cutting edge and may cause cracks.

Built-up tumor (BUE)-Adhesive wear

The reason for this cutting tool wear is that the chips are pressure welded to the blade. It is most common when processing viscous materials such as mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum alloys. Low cutting speed will increase the formation of built-up edge.

Groove wear-Adhesive wear

This type of blade wear is characterized by excessive local damage at the cutting depth line of the rake face and the flank face of the blade. The reason is adhesion (swarf welding) and deformation hardened surface. This is a common type of wear when machining stainless steel and superalloys.

Ductile deformation-Heat

When the cutting tool material becomes soft, ductile deformation occurs. This happens when the cutting temperature is too high for a certain material. Generally, the harder the blade material and the thicker the coating, the higher the resistance to ductile deformation and wear.

Hot crack-Heat

When the temperature of the cutting edge changes rapidly from heat to cold, multiple cracks perpendicular to the cutting edge may appear. Hot cracks are related to intermittent cutting, are common in milling operations, and are aggravated by the use of coolant.


Chipping or cracking is the result of mechanical tensile stress overload. There may be many reasons for this stress, such as chip impact, excessive cutting depth or high feed, sand in the workpiece material, built-up edge, vibration, or excessive blade wear.

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