How to choose the right woodworking tool material?

The woodworking tool material should have these characteristics:

Certain hardness

Usually, the hardness of the woodworking tool is HRC44~62, HRC is above 44 at 300℃, and the thermal hardness is good.

High wear resistance

Wear resistance refers to the ability of a material to resist friction and wear. The nature, number, size, and distribution of hard spots in the material structure all have an impact on the wear resistance. The level of tool wear resistance affects the life of the tool and the efficiency of the woodworking machine tool.

High thermal hardness

Thermal hardness means that the tool material works under high-temperature conditions and still maintains its high hardness performance; thermal hardness directly affects the cutting performance of the tool, especially the high-speed cutting of the tool.

Sufficient strength and toughness

Must have a certain degree of craftsmanship

In order to facilitate tool manufacturing, tool materials are required to have good manufacturing ability, including forging, rolling, welding processability, machinability, grind ability, heat treatment characteristics, etc.

The main components of woodworking tool materials

In modern woodworking tool materials, except for the carbon element of diamond, other materials are inseparable from carbides, nitrides, oxides, and borides. These compounds have high hardness, high melting point, and high elastic modulus, which are the main properties required by tool materials.

For example, in carbon tool steel, the main component is Fe3C, which is cementite; while alloy tool steel has composite carbides, such as alloy cementite (Fe, Cr) 3C, etc.; high-speed steel has more composite carbides; The hard spots in the cemented carbide are mainly WC and TiC, and the others are binders, such as Co and Ni; the matrix of ceramic tools is usually Al2O3 and Si3N4; cubic boron nitride is a non-metallic nitride.

Diamond is an allotrope of carbon. It is currently the hardest and most wear-resistant tool material known. Especially when cutting non-ferrous metals, non-metal composite materials such as wood-based panels with high glue content, and reinforced floors with wear-resistant materials on the surface, the effect is significant, and the wear resistance can be 100-300 times higher than that of cemented carbide.

The disadvantage is that it is more sensitive to impact, so the machine tool and tool operation stability requirements are higher. The cost of polycrystalline diamond PCD is 30-50 times higher than that of cemented carbide tools, and can only be sharpened by special methods (electric corrosion), so you should be more careful when using it. Diamond tools cannot be used to cut iron group metals, because diamond is easily converted to graphite due to the presence of iron at high temperatures.

The principle of reasonable choice of woodworking tool materials

  • Choose according to the characteristics of processed wood or modern artificial wood materials;
  • Choose according to different processing conditions;
  • Under the condition of meeting the requirements of production, installation and tool manufacturing technology, through analysis and comparison to achieve economic and practical principle selection.

The above three aspects are interrelated or even restrict each other. In the specific selection, you should be familiar with the performance of the tool material and focus on how to meet the main requirements. Other requirements as long as they have little impact

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